"first significant effects of ocean acidification are likely to be seenin the cold polar oceans, especially the Southern Ocean. The acid stateof the ocean is driven by a collection of chemical processes but amajor driver in them is the amount of carbon dioxide that is dissolvedinto the ocean form the atmosphere. Anthropogenic emissions of carbondioxide have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide,which have, in turn, driven more carbon dioxide into solution in theoceans. The ocean uptake of carbon dioxide is greater in colder water,and so is at its maximum in the chilly circum polar waters of theSouthern Ocean. Current modelling of these processes indicates that thesurface layers of the Southern Ocean (the top few hundred metres) willbe ‘the first cab of the acidification rank’ and become hostile to theformation of shells by marine organisms before any other part of theearth&rsquos oceans."
cold water coral reefs