Eye Candy as Brain Food
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

Images of blue along each one of these videos and links:
≈≈≈A feel-good story on video: divers off the shore of Socorro Island in Mexico free a majestic whale shark from the thick anchor rope strangling its body.


≈≈≈Chances are you have seen one of Mark Tipple's iconic photographs of divers and swimmers ducking under white rolling waves along the pages of famous magazines or on the internet.
I took the liberty to make a small screenshot of the new Mare Vida project shots:
Aside from their breathtaking beauty, the images evoke and resonate with the thunderous, relentless power of the oceans, an element both foreign and familiar to us, deserving to be respected, but also ecstatically enjoyed. To the point our breaths allow we can be seals, and play. Here is a Vimeo video of the young artist talking about his better and also his lesser known work.


≈≈≈Read this detailed and technical article from Scientific Reports on "the natural ocean acidification and fertilization event caused by the submarine eruption of El Hierro"
"The shallow submarine eruption which took place in October 10th 2011, 1.8 km south of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands) allowed the study of the abrupt changes in the physical-chemical properties of seawater caused by volcanic discharges. In order to monitor the evolution of these changes, seven oceanographic surveys were carried out over six months (November 2011-April 2012) from the beginning of the eruptive stage to the post-eruptive phase. Here, we present dramatic changes in the water column chemistry including large decreases in pH, striking effects on the carbonate system, decreases in the oxygen concentrations and enrichment of Fe(II) and nutrients. Our findings highlight that the same volcano which was responsible for the creation of a highly corrosive environment, affecting marine biota, has also provided the nutrients required for the rapid recuperation of the marine ecosystem."
HERE

≈≈≈BIOS, the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, does some fantastic work.  One of their projects is the Explored Program, "designed to provide teachers and students with hands-on experience in marine science.  Each year a new theme is chosen to highlight a current topic, and field trips, lesson plans and activites are produced."
BIOS Explorer 2013: Ocean Acidification


≈≈≈NPR audio piece on All Things Considered about plankton and its importance to the health of the planet:
http://www.npr.org/2012/09/30/162008302/a-tiny-ocean-world-with-a-mighty-important-future

≈≈≈New BBC documentary with the title Oceans: Blue Heart of the Planet. "Almost three quarters of the earth’s surface is covered in water and around 90% of all the living space on Earth is contained in the oceans.
These vast reserves cradled early life and continue to be home to a wealth of extraordinary creatures. At least 230,000 unique species have been documented, although as humans have only explored a small fraction of the depths, there may be as many as two million.
As well as being home to everything from whelks to whale sharks, the oceans offer a range of critical services, including acting as a source of food and regulating the atmosphere.
In particular, the oceans are also vital as sponges for green house gases, taking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere through two processes - dissolving straight into the water column and also through photosynthesis by phytoplankton.
Today, the oceans soak up around one third of all of human carbon emissions
But this comes at a terrible cost. The composition of the oceans is changing to become more acidic, threatening the tremendous diversity  of creatures that call them home."
Watch the trailer HERE

≈≈≈EDF, the Environmental Defense Action Fund has launched a campaign to "thank Administrator Lubchenco for being an oceans advocate."
"During her time as NOAA Administrator, Jane Lubchenco took historic strides towards protecting our fisheries and ensuring ocean sustainability.
As her time at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association draws to a close, we'd like to show her our great appreciation for all she's done. Will you join us?"

You can do so by signing HERE

≈≈≈Thanks to a $2.7 million grant from the state Alaska will soon have a buoy network capable of feeding real time ocean acidity, temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen data into the Alaska Ocean Observing System.
The information will be available to both scientists and the general public.
SOURCE

≈≈≈"If you are interested in the Arctic Ocean and how science and policy work together, then Arctic Ocean Acidification conference organized by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a perfect venue to learn more this. The conference will take place in Bergen, Norway, 6-8 May 2013."
"The main topics to be covered are:
- results from observational, experimental and modelling studies of past, present and future ocean acidification,
- responses of marine organisms and ecosystem structure, functioning and biodiversity
- perturbations to biogeochemical cycling and feedbacks to the climate system, and
- the economic, social and policy challenges of ocean acidification."

Detailed information HERE

≈≈≈By clicking on THIS link you can download a complete e-lecture by Richard Feely and Scott Doney titled "Ocean Acidification:The Other CO2 problem".
"Lecture Summary:
The overall goal of this lecture is to provide an overview of the process and progress of ocean acidification in the global oceans and its impacts on marine organisms over time scales of days to centuries. Examples of acidification impacts on corals, shellfish, and zooplankton are given to show how acidification can affect different kinds of life processes. This lecture describes what we know and what we don't know about ecosystem responses to acidification and the socio-economic implications for our society. Finally, we discuss the future implications of increased CO2 levels on the health of our ocean ecosystems and related ocean-based economies."


≈≈≈3 year Postdoctoral position at HKU (University of Hong Kong) to study marine invertebrate response to climate change at proteomics or biomineralization or physiology levels.
More details about this work opportunity HERE

≈≈≈PhD position at the University of Bristol to study "the future of shelf ecosystems". More information at the University of Bristol website.
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January 2013
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Callehttp://www.danieldelacalle.com/

Gone is 2012, the hottest or coldest year in recent history depending on where you live, gone too are the days of Ocean Acidification information famine.  You can now watch videos deciphering the oceans, listen to songs about acidity, follow via tweets a research expedition to Antarctica, attend a seminar near you or listen to senatorial speeches on the threat poised by CO2 on life in this planet to name but a few.  Enjoy… hmm, you know what we mean:

≈≈≈≈"Ocean Acidification: See Through My Eyes", by the Ocean Ark Alliance.


≈≈≈≈"Acidifying Waters Corrode Northwest Shellfish", a PBS News Hour piece published last December.


≈≈≈≈"Ocean Acidfication", by the RU Center for Digital Filmmaking.


≈≈≈≈"Ocean Acidification: Can Corals Cope?", a video from UCSD-TV from the Perspectives on Ocean Science series (check out the list with over 50 videos), to "hear Scripps marine biologist Martin Tresguerres describe research into the potential impact of ocean acidification on corals, and the mechanisms these amazing marine animals use to try to cope with the problem."
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈"Ocean Acidification", a song.


≈≈≈≈"An expedition to the icy waters of Antarctica has begun aboard the RRS James Clark Ross. The five-week mission will study the effect of ocean acidification in the Southern Ocean. The scientists will be contributing to a blog www.antarcticoacruise.org.uk
During the expedition, scientists will study the impact of the changing chemistry on marine organisms and ecosystems, on the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the sea and on how the sea interacts with the atmosphere to influence climate. This study is part of the UK Ocean Acidification research program UKOA. www.oceanacidification.org.uk/
Dr Geraint Tarling, from the British Antarctic Survey is leading the team of thirty scientists. He said: “This is the most comprehensive investigation into the response of the Southern Ocean ecosystem to ocean acidification yet mounted. The team will not only look at how different parts of the ecosystem respond in isolation but also see how effects interact to produce an ecosystem-level response.”"
SOURCE
MORE INFO

≈≈≈≈An interesting article on Scientific American (originally published at The Daily Climate titled "US Effort on Ocean Acidification Needs Focus on Human Impacts".
"A federal plan to tackle ocean acidification must focus more on how the changes will affect people and the economy, according to a review of the effort by a panel of the National Research Council.
"Social issues clearly can't drive everything but when it's possible they should," said George Somero, chair of the committee that wrote the report and associate director at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station. "If you're setting up a monitoring station, it should be where there's a shellfish industry, for example."
"
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈The 2013 Alaska Marine Science Symposium is taking place on January 21-24 in Anchorage.  Federal fisheries scientists speaking out on king salmon and Ocean Acidification issues will be among the keynote speakers.  The event is free and you can register HERE
MORE INFO

≈≈≈≈For those living in Washington State on January 24th (6-8PM) there will also be a free seminar at the Everett Station on Ocean Acidification.  The event is hosted by the Snohomish County Marine Resources Committee.
"Terrie Klinger, University of Washington School of Marine & Environmental Affairs ecologist will present "What is Ocean Acidification?" Shallin Busch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research ecologist, will present "Food Web Implications of Ocean Acidification." Brad Warren, Sustainable Fisheries Partnership and National Fisheries Conservation Center Director of Global Ocean Health, will present "Recommendations, Partnerships and Actions.""
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈A couple work and study opportunities:
1    Post-­doctoral fellowship in modelling the carbonate chemistry of the PETM ocean at the Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada.
2    Ocean Acidification Spring Research Apprenticeship at UW’s Friday Harbor Labs.

≈≈≈≈"Climate Change and Ocean Acidification", as delivered on the Senate floor by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse:
"Wednesday, December 12, 2012
Mr. WHITEHOUSE. Mr. President, there are many signs of the fundamental, measurable changes we are causing in the Earth's climate, mainly through our large-scale emission of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels. These are irreversible changes, at least in the short run, so we should take them very seriously.
Over the last 250 years, the global annual average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased from 280 parts per million to 390 parts per million. That is a 30-percent increase. We have recent direct measurements that the carbon dioxide concentration increased by 15 percent since 1980 when it was 339. In 1980 it was 339 and now it is 390. That is just a dozen years in which the concentration of CO
2 in our atmosphere has increased by more than 50 parts per million. Fifty parts per million is a big shift if one is not aware of the scales we are talking about here. For 8,000 centuries--800,000 years--longer than homo sapiens have existed on the face of the Earth, we can measure that the carbon concentration in the atmosphere has fluctuated between 170 and 300 parts per million. A total range of 130 parts per million has been the total range for 8,000 centuries. We are now outside of that range up to 390, and we have moved 50 points since 1980, in a number of decades. So the consequences are going to be profound, and perhaps no consequence of that carbon pollution will be as profound as the increasing acidification of the world's oceans.
Science, of course, has known since the Civil War era, and most of us understand, that excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere creates a warmer atmosphere known as the greenhouse effect. There is nothing new about that. But not all of the carbon dioxide emitted by human activity--by our use of fossil fuels--stays in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and the oceans cover 70 percent of the Earth. Where the atmosphere is in contact with the oceans, a portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves into the oceans, reacts with the sea water to form carbonic acid and increases the overall acidity of the oceans.
There is sometimes quarrel and debate about complex modeling of climate and atmospheric projections, but evidence of ocean acidification is simple to measure and understand. Indeed, even the small noisy chorus of climate change deniers and corporate polluters is noticeably quiet on the issue of ocean acidification because they simply cannot explain away the facts.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists gauge that over the past 200 years, hundreds of billions of tons of carbon dioxide have been absorbed into the oceans. NASA, which is able to put, for instance, a man on the Moon and a Rover on Mars and has reasonably good scientists working there who can accomplish those achievements, reports that:
“The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.”
NOAA scientists say the oceans are taking up about 1 million tons of carbon dioxide per hour. So in more or less the time my remarks are concluded, the equivalent of more than the weight of the Washington Monument of carbon will have been dumped into our oceans. All of the extra carbon dioxide humans have pumped into the oceans has caused the global pH of the upper ocean water to change--a nearly 30-percent increase in the acidity of the oceans.
As my colleagues can see, the curve is not only moving upward but is steepening. Where is it headed? By the end of this century, it is projected we will have a 160-percent rise in ocean acidity. As we can see, not only are the oceans becoming more acidic, but they are becoming more acidic at a very rapid pace. The rate of change in ocean acidity is already thought to be faster than at any time in the past 50 million years.
I talk, when I give this weekly speech from time to time, about the 800,000 years our planet has had a carbon dioxide concentration between 170 and 300 parts per million and how long a time period that is compared to say humankind having the mastery of fire, humankind having engaged in agriculture, humankind even existing as homo sapiens. It is longer than all of those things. But that is just measuring in the hundreds of thousands of years. We are talking about a rate of increased carbon concentration and ocean acidity climbing faster than at any time in the past 50 million years.
What does that mean? Well, a paper published in the journal Science, which is a mainstream, non-crank publication, earlier this year concluded that the current rate of carbon dioxide emission could drive chemical changes in our oceans that are unparalleled in at least the last 300 million years. We are back into geologic time now since we saw that kind of an effect. The authors warn that we may be “entering an unknown territory of marine ecosystem change.” Well, when our range of review is in the hundreds of millions of years and the authors are talking about entering unknown territory, that is really saying something.
Here is what Dr. Peter Brewer, the senior scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, has to say. Let me quote him:
“The outcome is very clear that we are in uncharted territory in the entire span of Earth history. The primary cause of this is simply the rate of CO2 change; we are changing Earth far, far faster than any recorded geologic shift ever.”
Repeat: “We are changing Earth far, far faster than any recorded geologic shift ever.”
What does this mean for marine life? Well, as the pH of sea water drops, so does the saturation of calcium carbonate, which is the compound found in the sea water that aquatic animals use for the construction of their shells and of their skeletons. Some sea creatures absorb calcium carbonate directly from the water; others ingest it as food and then through their bodies it works out to build their shells. At lower saturations of calcium carbonate, calcium carbonate is not as available to these species, and it becomes more difficult for them to make their shells; species such as oysters, crabs, lobsters, corals, and the plankton that comprises the very base of the oceanic food web. We have seen this happen in real life already with the disaster that befell the Pacific Northwest oyster hatcheries when acidic water came in and killed off all the juveniles that were being grown.
Over 1 billion people on this planet rely on marine protein as their primary source of protein, and then, of course, there are the countless jobs that depend on fisheries, on tourism, on restaurants, boat building, maintenance, shipping, and the list goes on. The Presiding Officer is from Maryland, which is another ocean State. He is clearly aware of the importance of that ocean economy.
As things get harder for the species to survive and thrive, sooner or later it will get harder for the economies they support. Let me give my colleagues a specific example: the tiny pteropod, a type of snail, which is about the size of a very small pea. It is also known as the sea butterfly because its foot has adapted into two butterfly-like wings which allows it to propel itself around in the ocean. These images show what can happen to the pteropod's shell when the creature's underwater environment is lacking in those compounds and becomes more acidic. That is not good for the pteropods.
Another study compared pteropods incubated in sea water with today's pH to pteropods incubated in water with the acidity and chemical conditions projected for the year 2100. The study found a 28-percent decrease in shell growth. Maintaining their shells against that acidity requires energy--energy that would otherwise go into other biologic processes such as growth or reproduction. So increasing ocean acidity is an external stress that makes it harder for species such as the pteropod to survive.
Who cares about the lowly pteropod? Well, salmon do. Forty-seven percent of the diet of some salmon species in the Pacific is pteropods. The salmon fisheries that support coastal jobs and economies also care about the salmon. Ocean fishing in the United States overall is a multibillion-dollar industry connected to hundreds of thousands of livelihoods, and we should care about our fisheries industry, even if one doesn't care about the salmon or the lowly pteropod.
These unprecedented changes in ocean acidity are not happening alone, unfortunately.
These changes come along with dramatically changing ocean temperature, which is also driven by the same carbon pollution. Just recently, NOAA proposed listing 66 species of coral as endangered or threatened, citing climate change as the driver of those species' three key threats: disease, warmer seas, and greater ocean acidification. When you add to those three conditions the preexisting stressors, such as nutrient pollution and destructive fishing practices, well, 35 percent of the world's reefs are classified as in a critical or threatened stage.
Scientific projections indicate that coral reef ecosystems could be eliminated in 30 to 50 years. The young pages who are on the floor of the Senate listening to this speech may very well live into a time when coral reefs and the ecosystems surrounding them are extinct. The death and decline of coral reefs, which are the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, in turn wounds hundreds of other species that call the reefs home. When a reef ecosystem collapses and does not recover, it quickly becomes dominated by algae, and the rich mix of species developed over hundreds of millions of years that was once present there then disappears.
Scientists think the coral reefs off the coast of Papua, New Guinea offer a window into future effects of ocean acidification because there are natural emissions of carbon dioxide which bubble up from the sea floor through the ocean and raise the concentration making the sea water more acidic. Researchers have found that many species, especially the more complex framework-building corals, which provide shelter to other organisms, do not thrive where the pH is lower.
These are two photographs taken in the same reef. We see how rich and vibrant this reef looks away from the carbon dioxide. Here, near the carbon, where the acidification is higher, it is a shadow of the healthy reef. The human-driven acidification of the ocean is capable of causing--indeed is destined to cause if we do nothing--a serious imbalance in the ocean's complex ecology. The external stress of carbon pollution will result in a new equilibrium in ocean ecosystems.
When we consider what this portends for our food security, for our planet's biodiversity and economically for ocean-based industries, we cannot afford to ignore these changes that are happening, that are measurable in our oceans.
Unfortunately, ignoring it is exactly what we are doing by failing to curb carbon pollution. There are high stakes involved. Our oceans cover 70 percent of the planet. We cannot change their chemistry without expecting profound consequences. It is time we realize we are, in fact, part of the very food chain being disrupted by the mounting acidification of the ocean.
The disruption of international fishing due to climate change and acidification threatens to destabilize local and global economies and compromise a major basic food source. How much? How much are we willing to sacrifice for the luxury of letting corporate polluters foul our planet with unchecked CO2 emissions? Carbon pollution from fossil fuels is depleting the health of the oceans as well as affecting the atmosphere. Unless we take serious action to reverse course, the consequences may be dire. We are sleepwalking through history. I implore my colleagues to heed the clear and persistent warnings that nature is giving us: to acknowledge the responsibility presented to us in this moment and to respond appropriately before it is too late.
I yield the floor.
"
SOURCE
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Deceptive December
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

December in the Southern Hemisphere equals summer heat and the end of the school year, but thanks to the winds from the north we still get snowflake and icicle lighting on the streets of Rio de Janeiro and the ever-present image of that famous obese man promising presents, provokingly overdressed with those boots and red coat.

Let's begin this confusing month with our classic news update on Ocean Acidification and the state of the world's seas:

≈≈≈≈This past Tuesday Governor Chris Gregoire made Washington State the first to adopt a policy to take on Ocean Acidification after signing an executive order underscoring the importance of recommendations from her Blue Ribbon Panel On Ocean Acidification.  The order signed by Gregoire, whose term will end in January, calls on the state to invest more money in scientific research, curb nutrient runoff from land, and push for cuts in greenhouse gas emissions on a regional, national and global scale.
“A healthy ocean is critical to our health and our coastal economies.  We have learned that human caused emissions of carbon dioxide are dramatically altering the ocean’s chemistry at an alarming rate.  These emissions, mostly resulting from burning fossil fuels, are now threatening our ocean ecosystems. Ocean acidification is yet another reason to quickly and significantly reduce emissions of carbon dioxide across the planet,” said Gregoire.
“Let’s get to work,” Gregoire told  audience at the Seattle Aquarium, adding that she would propose that the legislature reallocate $3.3 million in state funding to pay for research and other actions. “Let’s lead the world in addressing this global challenge.”
Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel strategic response on PDF
SOURCE 1
SOURCE 2

Mending the Nets (State Library of Florida)

≈≈≈≈Scientists from NOAA, British Antarctic Survey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the University of East Anglia discovered severe dissolution of the shells of living pteropods in the Southern Ocean during a science cruise in 2008.
The team examined an area of upwelling, where winds cause deep cold water to be pushed upwards from around 1,000 meters to the surface of the ocean.  Upwelled water is usually more corrosive to a particular type of calcium carbonate (aragonite) that pteropods use to build their shells.  The point at which this occurs is known as the "saturation horizon".  The team found that the combined influence of ocean acidification and natural upwelling meant that in some areas the saturation horizon was around just 200m - the upper layer of the ocean where pteropods live.
"Co-author and science cruise leader, Dr Geraint Tarling from BAS, said: “Although the upwelling sites are natural phenomena that occur throughout the Southern Ocean, instances where they bring the ‘saturation horizon’ above 200m will become more frequent as ocean acidification intensifies in the coming years. As one of only a few oceanic creatures that build their shells out of aragonite in the polar regions, pteropods are an important food source for fish and birds as well as a good indicator of ecosystem health. The tiny snails do not necessarily die as a result of their shells dissolving, however it may increase their vulnerability to predation and infection consequently having an impact to other parts of the food web.”"
The results of the study are published in the journal Nature Geoscience.
SOURCE 1
SOURCE 2

≈≈≈≈Interested in carrying out your own Ocean Acidification lab research and experiments?  The University of Washington offers hourly usage of their Ocean Acidification Environmental Laboratory.  There is even a self-service option available to those experienced with carbonate chemistry measurements.  Contact the OAEL Manager, Dr. Michael O'Donnell for guidance on fee structure and the application process.
MORE INFO

≈≈≈≈Digging around I found this 16 minute piece of Brad Warren speaking about Ocean Acidification at the 2012 NW Straits Marine Resource Committee Annual Meeting, held in Port Townsend, Washington.

SOURCE

≈≈≈≈Serge Dedina has put up a list at the Coronado Patch with what he sees as "the top coastal issues we need to address in 2013 and beyond".  The list includes climate change, Ocean Acidification, coastal restoration, sand replenishment, marine protected areas and coastal pollution. Read the article HERE

≈≈≈≈The Smithsonian Magazine recently published the results of new research done by Georgia Institute of Technology revealing how corals send out chemical signals to recruit the help of goby fish in removing toxic seaweed.  If turtle weed, a toxic seaweed that causes bleaching, gets tangled up on coral branches "the researchers worked out how the coral contacts the gobies to let them know that they need their hedges trimmed. Once the coral gets hit with chemicals from the invading turtle weed, it releases its own chemical signal—an emergency call to gobies—within 15 minutes. And, within another 15 minutes or less, gobies receive the message and swoop in to nibble away at the encroaching foliage."
"It’s also possible that such subtle chemical signals could be disrupted by ocean acidification. Clownfish and damselfish raised in seawater with the acidity scientists predict we’ll see in the year 2050 have trouble identifying scents in seawater to find their homes or avoid predators. If these gobies have similar problems, the impacts of acidification on reef communities could be greater than expected."
READ MORE of this interesting article talking about the importance of biodiversity.

≈≈≈≈Short CBS8 video on Ocean Acidification and a lecture series that took place last month at Birch Aquarium in San Diego, California. San Diego, California News Station - KFMB Channel 8 - cbs8.com
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈Scientists from the University of Rhode Island are using a 264,000-gallon salt water tank at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory to simulate the surface of the Arctic Ocean.  They hope to understand how diminishing ice coverage will affect the concentrations of atmospheric gases.  You can read more about their work in THIS Wired Magazine article by Jeffrey Marlow and/or watch the time-lapse video of an ice-coverage experiment:


≈≈≈≈Postdoctoral Fellowships:  The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center offers postdoctoral fellowships for applicants interested on either of two projects:
"1)Effects of diel-cycling hypoxia and pH on estuarine fish, shellfish and food webs. This project is based in Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware Coastal Bays and includes laboratory experiments, field studies and modeling components. We’ve developed a laboratory system that is capable of simulating daily cycles of dissolved oxygen and pH in up to 5 simultaneous treatments. Strong collaborations with management agencies facilitate field experiments and sampling.
2)Mangrove ponds as a model system to study acidification. This work takes advantage of the Smithsonian’s network of field stations in Belize and Panama and could be expanded to FL as well.
"
Fellowship information can be found at http://www.serc.si.edu/pro_training/fellowships/postdoc.aspx. The deadline is January 15.

≈≈≈≈The folks at Infographicsmania have created a cool graphic about oceans carbon pollution that can be downloaded or shared HERE


≈≈≈≈The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) signed a letter of intent to expand the range of their joint research projects on November 13th. Possible future cooperation will likely include research on Ocean Acidification and deep sea exploration.
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈Check out the WORLD CLOCK for the year 2012 to see in real time population increases across various regions and worldwide, what the major causes of death and illness are, our global food production and consumption, CO2 emissions, deforestation, extinction of species or energy consumption (to name but a few).

Screenshot of the World Clock

≈≈≈≈International Conference on Arctic Ocean Acidification to be held in Bergen, Norway, 6-8 May 2013.
"The Conference will present the results of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) assessment on Arctic Ocean Acidification, lead by Richard Bellerby, Howard Browman and Lars-Otto Reiersen.
Conference Organisers are AMAP, Institute for Marine Research (IMR), Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and University of British Columbia (UBC).
"
PDF with more information.
SOURCE
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Art&facts
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

For more than 35,000 years we have been inspired by nature, driven to reproduce and depict it in drawings, carvings, photography or film.  That original motivation might have been shamanistic, triggered by a dependence on other species for survival, but in many cases there are also unquestionable examples of our admiration, love and inspiration by other animals from the cave art of Chauvet all the way up to Walton Ford's large-scale watercolors.  But no matter how detailed, thought-provoking, studied, imaginative or ambitious these results have been, in a theoretical comparison nature always reigns sublime, surprising us with the unexpected solution, a perfect designs of timeless beauty, deceiving simplicity or a random intriguing anomaly, all of which is pure art.
"What I'm doing with my paintings is building a sort of cultural history of the way animals live in the human imagination." Walton Ford
For his latest book of paintings, titled Oceans Fishes, James Prosek has made life-size renditions of the 35 most pursued fish in the Atlantic Ocean (plus several crustaceans, seaweed and mollusks sharing the same environment).  The book is a personal tribute to marine beauty and, as he puts it, a "quiet conservation statement". Mutton Snapper by James Prosek
"I want to paint the fish at the moment when they first come out of the water, when the colors are still vivid.  They start to fade almost immediately after they are taken out of the water. It is not a moment a lot of people get to see, because people see fish on their plates or fish market."  The project has taken the artist to Nova Scotia, Africa and the Caribbean.
Watch the trailer for Picture the Leviathan, a documentary about James Prosek and Oceans Fishes.


Yong Ho Ji creates sculptures of humans, animals, fish and hybrid creatures with used car tires.  The black, rugged tires make the images aggressive and mesmerizing.
˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜

˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜


Won Park, on the other hand, just needs a one dollar bill to bring to life his own origami pieces with the added difficulty of working from a rectangular shape that can only be folded, not cut, glued or taped. Marvel at this beautiful koi or the "dollar shark". ˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜

  Down at the bottom of the sea in Japan a small male puffer fish busily works day and night with his tiny fin to create intricate, grooved circular patterns in the hope of attracting a female mate.  Females are somehow attracted to these beautifully arranged ridges and, if pleased, will lay their eggs in the middle of the circle.  It is believed the design might help protect the eggs from being dragged by currents.  (This fascinating discovery was made by underwater photographer Yoji Ookata. Please visit his WEBSITE) ˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜˜


Marc Fichou makes origami animals "where the image cannot be separated from its referent, this creating a link between past and present".
"In my series, the sheet of paper contains both the photographic and the material memories of its past origami form. Origami and paper are one and the same thing at two different times, and in two different spaces and in two different shapes."

DALeast paints gigantic street art murals of animals and fish that seem to be made of twisted iron, like this giant whale.  He is having a solo exhibition at the Jonathan Levine Gallery in NYC December 1-29, should you happen to be in the city around Christmas.

"There she blows!", a true white whale spotted on a boat trip to Svalbard,
Photo Credit Dan Fisher

... and  a group of sperm whales sleeping; the sea as their enveloping blue papoose.

The simple beauty of a coconut octopus with its attractive dark ramified lines and white suckers, the most beautiful attire for the world's cleverest invertebrate
Photo by Mario Neuman
and finally one of the many outstanding photographs by zoologist and photographer Alexander Semenov's. A very festive lion mane's jellyfish. Happy holidays.From Twistedsifter.com
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After the Storm
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

The storm passed and so did the election, strangely intertwining both in a way that made hard to distinguish one from the other.  In a world steamrolling to global weirding certain people call a late October hurricane in Manhattan "the new normal".  For some absurd reason such a catchphrase has also become political, either tabu, denied, or embraced and yelled with sad predictability.  
I do not have the answers, cannot recite the facts, numbers, figures, correlations or graphics and wont pretend I do.  If the whole issue is tabu to you chances are you stumbled upon this post and are shaking your head in disgust.  If you believe, worry and despair you probably find the futile comfort and warmth of this small reflection of your credo.  I simply and desperately wish we could all quietly agree the storm showed once again how mighty strong nature is, how easily it turns a cargo boat into a sinking toy and it blows the million dollar homes like dandelion seeds in July.  Maybe then being humble, respectful, watchful and preventive will also become the new normal.
Some news to keep afloat in the current surge of information; we do not want the blog to flood too.  November feels the longest month of the year:

≈≈≈≈"Fish on Fridays: Hurricane Sandy, Climate Change, and the Future of Fish", a Center for American Progress article by Michael Conathan.
"As our last wild capture industry, fishing businesses are arguably more reliant on natural forces than any other profession. It’s a centuries-old vocation, inherently dependent on knowledge passed down from one generation to the next, so when species distribution patterns evolve, even subtle change becomes readily apparent."

≈≈≈≈A BBC World Service audio piece on the Anthropocene, "the age we made".  "Millions of years from now, scientists will be able to read the rock forming now and see that something profound and unprecedentedly rapid…" LISTEN to it HERE

≈≈≈≈Talkingfish.org recently interviewed Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Research Associate Sarah Cooley about the impacts of Ocean Acidification on the shellfish industry and the future of the New England waters.
Read it HERE

≈≈≈≈For once, a bi-partisan move trying to save the Washington State's shellfish took place last month:  Gov. Chris Gregoire formed a 28-member panel to work on a 43-item list of projects and 20 top priority measures on Ocean Acidification the state could tackle prior to the upcoming state legislature session in January.
"Potential top priorities include:
1 Reducing air emissions that can be linked to local ocean water acidity.
2 Reducing amounts of nutrients flowing into local sea water. These measures could involve overhauling sewage treatment plants and other sewage system to meet standards that still need to be set..
3 Exploring using salt-water vegetation to combat the impact of ocean acidification.
4 Improving and expanding monitoring of ocean acidification."

SOURCE

≈≈≈≈It has been a while since we put a Youtube video on Ocean Acidification.  This one is for children and was created by ATMO's Atmospheric Sciences Outreach group.


≈≈≈≈Seminar day on Ocean Acidification in Gothenburg, Sweden for the 30th of November.  It is organized by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management and you can register by sending an email to Kerstin Cote HERE or download a PDF with details HERE

≈≈≈≈A six week laboratory experiment by the University of Otago on algal communities and their response to Ocean Acidification.
"This project has shown that greater CO2 concentrations could positively influence photosynthesis in some species of fleshy macroalgae by reducing carbon limitation, however, calcifying algae are vulnerable to the oceanic chemistry changes caused by ocean acidification. These varying responses among species and the variability of communities under different levels of water motion is likely to lead to communities responding to ocean acidification at a local scale."
Read more from the SOURCE

≈≈≈≈A controversial but nevertheless interesting text by Bernard David for the Huffingtonpost: Climate Change and its Influence On Investing: A New Perspective

≈≈≈≈PhD project opportunity to study carbon dioxide uptake and carbonate chemistry in UK shelf waters.  The deadline to apply is the 17th of May 2013 and you can read more about it on the University of East Anglia's website.
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13 News for the 31st
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

Three years ago you really needed to scrape at the bottom of the barrel to come up with news on the web about Ocean Acidification.  Today I am "only" posting 13 items and have to leave at least 10 more out:
≈≈≈≈64% of the waters existing outside national jurisdiction, the "high seas", are yours.  And mine. As John Platt rightly writes in a recent Mother Nature Network article, "according to the United National Law of the Sea Convention, these unregulated bodies of water — and the fish and minerals they contain — belong to all of mankind and should be used to serve the common good."
The new TerraMar Project wants to protect those high seas.  If you visit their site you can claim a parcel of the ocean, take a virtual dive with Google, friend a marine species or find interesting educational projects. Although the main purpose of the website is to celebrate the oceans, the website does address the various threats to life inside those waters, from plastic pollution to illegal dumping, from overfishing and whaling to Ocean Acidification.
VISIT THEIR WEBSITE and BECOME A CITIZEN
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈Sweden wants trash and wants it badly.  The Scandinavian nation is facing an unusual problem since their waste-to-energy program began running out of source material.  20% of Sweden's district heating comes from garbage incinerators, but they are not producing enough waste to feed it on their own, so 800,000 tons of trash are being imported every year from neighboring European countries (mainly for those new rich, the Norwegians) to power plants.  That is how Norway has ended paying Sweden to take their trash and then receives the residue polluted ashes, filled with heavy metals, back to bury in home soil.
You can read or listen to the original PRI information HERE.

≈≈≈≈A CBS news piece about Ocean Acidification and oyster farming in Washington State.


≈≈≈≈The Smithsonian announced this week the launching of a $10 million project to study coastal marine biodiversity and ecosystems around the world over a long period of time.
"The Tennenbaum Marine Observatories will be the first worldwide network of coastal ecological field sites, standardizing measurements of biological change. By studying sites with Smithsonian experts in biology, ecology and anthropology, and using technologies like DNA sequencing, the project will provide an unprecedented understanding of how marine biodiversity is affected by local human activities and global change, such as ocean warming, acidification and rising sea levels."
"The project will have five field sites: the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., on the Chesapeake Bay, the Institution’s marine station at Fort Pierce, Fla., Carrie Bow Cay in Belize and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute’s two locations in Panama—Bocas Del Toro on the Caribbean and Naos station on the Pacific. As the project grows, the Smithsonian will establish additional research sites with collaborators around the globe to monitor coastal ocean health, with the goal of at least 10 new sites within the next decade."

SOURCE at ARTDAILY.ORG

≈≈≈≈Mussels could lose their anchor with Ocean Acidification: FHL's Emily Carrington's lab presented a study at the Third International Symposium on the Ocean in a High CO2 World last month that showed how the silky threats (byssus fibers) glueing mussels to one another and to rocks become significantly weaker in water with a pH lower than 7.6.  Water temperature seems to also be a major factor, "with threads about 60 percent weaker in 77 degree Fahrenheit water than in cooler 65 degree water. READ MORE about mussels’ sticky substance and why researchers think it can offer important insights for developing new adhesives."
Nice NPR audio piece on byssal threats HERE.

PHOTO CREDIT: EMILY CARRINGTON FOR INSIDESCIENCE.ORG
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈Interdisciplinary symposium on Ocean Acidification in Hong Kong from 11-14th of December, 2012.
SYMPOSIUM SCHEDULE
Tuesday (Dec. 11th 2012)
 Opening ceremony and mixing party (starts at 4.30 pm)
Wednesday (Dec. 12th 2012) 
Climate change: coastal warming, acidification and hypoxia
Coastal aquaculture and fisheries in a changing climate
Coastal climate change: a physiological perspective
Larval life in the changing coastal oceans
Thursday (Dec. 13th 2012) 
Biomineralization: a materials engineering perspective
“OMICS”: a powerful tool in modern ecology research
The forum for collaborative coastal acidification research
Symposium Banquet
Friday (Dec. 14th 2012) 
Graduate students perspectives on multidisciplinary OA research
How to write and publish brilliant research papers—tips from experts
More information and registration HERE

≈≈≈≈Interesting Op-Ed piece on the NY Times a couple weeks ago about "How to Catch Fish and Save Fisheries".  Environmental ministers from numerous countries met last week to, for a second time, try to reach an agreement that protects 10% of the world's oceans.  As Carl Safina and Brett Jenks point out, the situation around the world is dire, but there is still hope because we have not reached a point of no return yet. The biggest challenge, but also a big portion of the solution is in the hands of small-scale fisheries and the expansion of TURF (Territorial User Rights Fisheries) reserves.
THE PIECE

PHOTO: STATE LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES OF FLORIDA

≈≈≈≈To study and be able to predict the effects of Ocean Acidification on commercial fisheries NOAA announced last September grants for a total $1.6 million over the next three years for Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, The State University of New York at Stony Brook and the University of Washington.
Read more details on the NOAA site

≈≈≈≈The University of Southern Mississippi and Liquid Robotics are carrying out an Ocean Acidification study in the Gulf of Mexico.  Physical oceanographer Dr. Stephan Howden, of the University of Southern Mississippi is using the Liquid Robotics Wave Glider to measure CO2 and dissolved oxygen levels, pH, water temperature, conductivity, air temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed and direction on a route around the Mississippi River Delta.  Data is being reported in near-real time and is available on the GCOOS Data Portal so you, from your home, can follow its course and see the results right now. Just a click away.

≈≈≈≈In early October "National Science Foundation’s research team successfully retrieved data from a sensor (SeaFET) they had deployed in Antarctic waters at the end of previous research season. It will provide critical baseline data on the changes in chemistry or acidification in those remote seas and will also be first of its kind about the relative acidity–expressed as pH–of the waters in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica."
"Deployed by divers under the sea ice and left in place at the end of the 2011-2012 Antarctic research season, the sensor gathered data through the month of June, which is the height of winter in the Southern Hemisphere. Data gathering ended when the instrument’s battery failed in the frigid waters. Having a pH baseline will provide an important benchmark for scientists to begin to test whether certain species have the physiological and genetic characteristics to adapt to projected change."

SOURCE at BEFOREITSNEWS.COM

PHOTO CREDIT: NSF/UCSD

≈≈≈≈Two scientists at Western Washington University's Shannon Point Marine Center in Anacortes have received a $543,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to study the impacts of Ocean Acidification on organisms that form the base of the oceanic food web. The "new project will examine how the production and storage of fats in phytoplankton exposed to acidic conditions affect the reproduction of one of its principal predators, the copepod. Copepods are an important component in the oceanic food web, since they are fed upon by finfish, shellfish larvae and other marine animals such as herring, Dungeoness crab, and filter feeders such as baleen whales and whale sharks. Copepods are prevalent both locally in the Salish Sea and in global oceans."
SOURCE

≈≈≈≈It's not for everyone, that's true, but if you wished to listen to a part or the whole five and a half hour "webinar of the seventh and final meeting of the Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification" you will be overjoyed to find it HERE.

≈≈≈≈"A postdoctoral position is available in the Geology and Geophysics Department at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution starting in February 2013. The position is part of an NSF-funded project to determine the compounded impacts of ocean acidification, warming, and oxygen depletion on the health, survival and growth of benthic foraminifera. The successful candidate will work with the PI to set up the experimental system, conduct a long-term experiment, process samples, analyze data, and write a manuscript(s). The material to be studied will be bathyal foraminifera to be collected on a research cruise in May or June 2013; the successful applicant will join this approximately one-week cruise."
APPLY (Postdoctoral Investigator Ocean Acidification, job 12-10-04
SOURCE
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Condensed by Distillation
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

Decanted from the speedy flow of information here are a handful of the latest news on Ocean Acidification:

≈≈≈The Third International Symposium on The Ocean in a High-CO2 World took place at the end of last month. You can read the press release at the end of the four-day event HERE, read the reports on how climate change, together with Ocean Acidification is going to challenge global food supplies and what countries will be most affected (The Maldives, Togo, Comoros and Iran top the list) in THIS REUTERS article, see how it might all be written in stone in the series of photographs showing tiny specimens of fossil coccolithophores by Paul Bown, paleaoceanographer at University College London (please read the NATURE article dedicated to it HERE), or watch a couple of the video recorded talks available on Bambuser
Beth Fulton: impacts on Ocean Acidification on food webs and fisheries

Richard Matear: Ocean Acidification and earth system feedbacks


≈≈≈California Report's coverage of the Monterey symposium: "Scientists Focus on Ocean Acidification"


≈≈≈We mentioned the Catlin Seaview Survey and their underwater camera work months ago and now it is out for everyone to see and admire through Google Maps.
"Today we’re adding the very first underwater panoramic images to Google Maps, the next step in our quest to provide people with the most comprehensive, accurate and usable map of the world. With these vibrant and stunning photos you don’t have to be a scuba diver—or even know how to swim—to explore and experience six of the ocean’s most incredible living coral reefs. Now, anyone can become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau and dive with sea turtles, fish and manta rays in Australia, the Philippines and Hawaii."
Go to the GOOGLE MAPS page and watch this introductory video:


≈≈≈Download EPOCA's Knowledge Base 2012 (Updating What We Know About Ocean Acidification And Key Global Challenges). Available in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and German.

≈≈≈The New York Times article "Scientists Adopt Tiny Island as a Warming Bellwether" has received criticism for allegedly depicting a downplayed, relaxed and partial view on the impact of Ocean Acidification. An example of such evaluation written by Susan Webber last Sunday, October 7th.

≈≈≈Sailors for the Sea have put out a list with eight measures any individual sailor can take to fight increasing pollution, acidification and over-fishing. Katie Jewett tells:
1. You can always provision your boat with local produce. Make sure that you are not buying produce that had to be shipped across an ocean to get to you.
2. Divide your rubbish onboard, take it home to be composted or recycled. Use plastic as little as possible and never never let it risk going overboard.
3. Use diesel as little as possible or, if you can, convert to bio fuels.
4. Conserve water with foot-pedal sinks and dish washing.
5. Eliminate use of toxic bottom paints.
6. Prevent any dumping of waste or gray water overboard.
7. Learn more about the problems facing your local area and many bodies of water, by reading about ocean acidification, low oxygen levels, and plastics in the ocean.
8. Find and join a local ocean conservation group and/or Sailors for the Sea to see how you can be part of the solution, not part of the problem.

SOURCE

≈≈≈The US National Science Foundation awarded last month a $ 203,911 grant to the Little Cayman Research Center for building a new coral reef stress wet lab in which to carry out experiments on Ocean Acidification, climate change and fisheries management of grouper and lionfish.
More information HERE

≈≈≈Dr. Bärbel Hönisch, Assistant Professor of Earth and Environmental Science at Columbia University and geochemist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory talks about research on geological records to study Ocean Acidification for NPR's Academic Minute: AUDIO

≈≈≈Research by NOAA’s William G. Sunda and Wei-jun Cai of the University of Georgia finds that ocean acidification is accelerated in nutrient-rich areas:
"Carbon dioxide released from decaying algal blooms, combined with ongoing increases in atmospheric carbon emissions, leads to increased levels of ocean acidification, and places additional stress on marine resources and the coastal economies that depend on them, according to a new study"
READ MORE HERE

≈≈≈A video from the Washington Post interviewing Kris Holderied, Director of NOAA's Kasitsna Bay Laboratory about the pH levels on  local waters.


≈≈≈Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences offers a three-year Postdoctoral Research Scientist position in the area of phytoplankton physiology and Ocean Acidification. The application deadline is on October 15th. Information HERE

≈≈≈Life, people, nations and institutions are polyhedral, and with that in mind one can easily understand how the same place best known for its casinos, banks, formula one car races and the highest number of millionaires per capita in the world can also be responsible for launching a new two million dollar Ocean Acidification International Coordination Center that will be based at the International Atomic Energy Agency Environment Laboratories. His Serene Highness Prince Albert II hopes the center will help coordinate international research and link science and policy.
MORE
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A Hard Nut
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

Open your mouth and repeat after me: "SA-PU-CA-IA!"
I know a month and a half ago I posted what was to be my last text on the blog, but these things happen constantly and if politicians make a living of it I too am fully entitled to say one thing and do the other with a smile. To ease into this embarrassing return let's have this post just be about seeds, the symbol of beginnings and continuations.
Having always been fascinated by nuts, kernels, husks, seeds and fruit my arrival in Brazil is a blessing on the verge of becoming now the curse that engulfs my life. The familiar handful of seeds with faded appeal back home in Spain have been drowned by a bountiful world of Dr. Seuss bushes, palms and giant trees that compete to astound and feed us all here in Brasilia.  Be careful with what you wish for...
It is bizarre to feel so much like a gatherer primate in the middle of a city of 5 million, but the brief history of this envisioned-in-a-dream capital allows for big sections of the Brazilian savanna to sprawl into its very heart while paradisiac weather conditions do the rest: rational urbanism and practical landscaping have turned us into alert, hungry, competing monkeys. Everyone is ready to climb the branches of lime, avocado, mango, papaya, guava and passionfruit trees or make expert visits to lesser known national treats with mouthwatering names like pequi, jabuticaba, jenipapo, caju*, jaca**, caja manga or graviola.  This has to be a phenomenon that goes unnoticed to the (very few) foreign tourists visiting us, quiet peaceful folks who cannot imagine any city as one mammoth fruit orchard. Here though, "amongst us locals", it is an open war, a race for the next juicy treat. Some fruit even gets picked before ripe, simply to make sure nobody else keeping track of its progress steals it away first.  We all walk around scanning foliage and soil, taking quick geotagged mental notes, changing the route to the office and the supermarket to cover extra ground.  Mango season is around the corner and things are beginning to get tense and will soon turn nasty.  I have visions of businessmen in suitcases stopping along the highway and elatedly filling with sappy hands the trunks of their imported cars, a bruised knee or scraped jacked here and there is a small price to pay, thousands of schoolchildren with yellow mouths and sugar-rush vampirish eyes unable to keep track of the lesson.  Oh, so many stomach aches.
But too much of a good thing can make you lose your mind (e.g. Don Quixote). In my case, I feel a greedy urge to take all the nuts home, know where and when those colorful ornamental seeds can be collected and the consequence is that the shoebox apartment that my girlfriend generously shares with me looks more and more like the tropical chipmunk version of the horn of plenty, the horn being a Kayapo indian gathering basket and the plenty thousands of beautiful, "indispensable" (or tasty) beauties that have spilled out of drawers and boxes into the kitchen floor. A token:

"And the sapucaia?", I hear you say.  The sapucaia tree is mother to the queen of all nutshells: huge, heavy, beautiful, impossible, hard as a rock and in season as I write these rushed lines. This vegetal capsule could be described as a massive vase or helmet of sorts made from an ironwoodish material and possessing a giant pushpin lid that pops out like a soda bottle when the nuts inside are in their prime.  Jungle monkeys go crazy for them and try to speed the ripening process by half breaking the branch with violent twists of the impenetrable ball.  It is said you will never see a monkey stick its hand inside the nutshell for fear of not getting it out once filled with seeds; they prefer to shake the pot and collect from the ground.  To cut a nutshell is no small feat, it is a task that knows no shortcuts and requires absolute resolution and stamina. You have to climb the tree (that can grow above 160 feet) and to get to the tip of the exterior branches, where the nutshells capriciously grow. Then you can either use the monkey technique and twist with all your might for a few minutes in both directions until the tough branch finally gives or you can benefit from being a modern man with hardware stores in every streetcorner and use a Fiskars pruning saw while holding on with legs, teeth and the remaining arm to the mighty sapucaia tree in a voluptuous high altitude dance.
Sadly, between both people and monkeys sapucaias have become an endangered tree almost doomed by this dangerous cocktail of rampant deforestation and monkey feasting.  It would be easy to dip head first at this point into a sad soliloquy, but hey, we are in the middle of a light hearted story:  Right around where we live there are a few sapucaia trees that a handful of us, the more experienced Brasilienses, know and periodically check.  They are right between the worksite for the upcoming bicycle trail network that will soon transform the city (this being another story of seeds, the seeds of change that are wind spreading worldwide) and a gas station (this, on the contrary, hopefully being a tale of upcoming extinction).  On Sundays we gather under them, the purple and green sapucaias: the curious passing by monkeys that watch from the side, the hard working monkey endlessly throwing a rotten nutshell, a rock or a stick up in the hope of hitting the small piñatas and being showered with nuts, the deceivingly-fragile-scavenging-female monkey that follows the hard working monkey, pointing to everyone that wants to listen to the shakeable nutshells in the "very easy to climb for a man" trees while shamelessly stealing the fruit of the other monkey's labor… and there is me, the pinnacle of evolution at this point, the Fiskars monkey. I risk my life in the most absurd fashion and climb the tree, saw off three or four nutshells and greedily take them home in a bag.  Here we eat, store and take pictures of such impossible works of nature, create crafty uses for them to post on Ecodesigns and grow a little army of baby sapucaia trees to plant in our favorite spots and continue fighting the power back and feeding the hungry monkey that lives in all of us. Go for small actions that just like seeds hold the power of rebirth and change. The city CAN feed with no CO2 footprint.

A video playfully made with the photo camera a while back at the Natural History Museum in Paris, during a commemorative Darwin exhibit. Music by the mighty Sigur Rós to welcome myself back to the blog. "On the Decay of Species":
*Cashew tree
**Jackfruit tree
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Thank You and Goodbye
Saturday, June 10, 2017
By Daniel de la Calle

I have been writing for our blog since early 2010, traveling also on occasions to South America to screen the film and talk about Ocean Acidification.  I cannot list the number of ways in which what seemed like a simple task has enriched my life, providing the perfect excuse to learn about the seas, do online research, discover new places, cultures, foods and people, practice writing and even to find love.  We have all had the experience of planning a quiet stroll that became a life altering journey.  It has been a true privilege to work here and I want to thank Barbara and Sven for having me on their team.  I know when they decided to do A Sea Change the words "Ocean Acidification" could barely be found online or in anyone's mouths.  Now, six years later, the challenge to post news on the site is choosing amongst the plethora of entries, videos, photos, symposia, job offers, school and academic events and screenings taking place every week.  A Sea Change has clearly contributed to raise such awareness and will surely keep being shown worldwide because its message is as valid today as back in 2009.
This is my last post and I also want to thank you reader, whoever you are, for having checked on the film and read some of these texts.  Let's hope we can soon write the news that CO2 emissions is a problem finally addressed on a definitive and global scale.
Take care.
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Interview with Elias and Sven
Saturday, June 10, 2017

By Daniel de la Calle

 

Between lemonades, swimming pools and ice cream Sven and Elias sat down for this brief interview, five years after the beginning of A Sea Change:


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